Iqa // Progress 180220


Initial sketch idea on train station terminal plans before converting to line drawings.

Rearrangement of program layout after discussion with James. 

Structural Progress / Tutorial discussion with james regarding the structure layout.

Masterplan ; Combination of Nur’s Logistic park and my terminal station.

Section of logistic park and train station shows our combined programme. That is by having the shared space and public space merged between Nur’s Warehouse and my train station. 


Archie Watson//Progress

Continuing with the verbs Express and Articulate, I observed whether the verb model itself could be represented as an initial architectural form as seen from the design ideas below.


Initial Ideas, Week 4

New themes of convergence and divergence were highlighted in these branching out ideas which could suggest all types of people travelling to the proposed vision of Anaklia and also leaving it.

In addition to this, it was necessary to define my service station programme by three sequences which are: The Sequence of Arrival, The Sequence of Use & The Sequence of Departure.  My research analysed how these sequences work with the verbs in precedents such as, the Barbican Centre, the Georgian Wissol and Socar service stations, the Houten and the Gloucestershire Service Stations.

Barbican Centre Study


Socar, Batumi, Giorgi Khmaladze – Ground Floor Plan and Perspective Section Studies


AutoGrill Sketch Studies


Wissol Petrol, Gori, J. Mayer – Site Plan


Wissol Section


Gloucestershire Services, Glenn Howells Architects – Site Plan Study


Gloucestershire Services – Section, Floor Plan and Glulam Detail Studies

When I travelled to the Gloucestershire services it became apparent that once inside the vicinity of the building and its landscaping, it was almost impossible not to spend a long time there which is ironic considering the general stereotype of the service station typology.  Because of this, I now feel it is important to recreate this feeling through my design where the public could spend hours in a tranquil setting and not realise they are in the middle of a massive developing city.  This could be done through establishing a protective green belt zone around the services.

British Road Map – Prepare the Route
Sequence of Arrival
Sequence of Use
Sequence of Departure

Finally, to fully understand the complexity of the service station I visited, these organisational diagrams will be used to establish preliminary spatial relationships over an urban context and building scales.

Context Scale Organisational Diagram


Programme Scale Organisational Diagram


// exploration of grid with “disturbance of grid” //

By using the three of approach by three project, new idealogy of drawing was raised up by using of three element which is consistency of grid, disturbance of grid ( void ) and randomly grid.


This drawing shows that combination of three element (above ) how to create a a historical monument. Based on this oblique drawing, its clearly shows that consistency grid of column, excavation of plane surface and randomly space between another columns shows that’s 3 type of monument and collective memory.


We have chosen to focus on the Rose Revolution Square in Tbilisi, Georgia. We felt this was an interesting example in Georgia which related to both Harry’s interest in gathering and circulation, started off by looking at the Piranesi space in Euralille, and Lok’s interest in folding space and duration in movement having looked at Big Library by OMA and Oblique city by Claude Parent.
The square is a key space in the city as it was constructed in the Soviet era as a large square used for military parades and spectacles. The square was originally conceived as a huge ‘one-dimension’ space with many social fucntions underneath, although it can be argued this wasn’t quite acheived and has been broken up and changed many times since its inception.
It was originally called Republic square but was renamed after Georgia’s Rose Revolution of 2003. It can be said that it has shown the different regimes such as the fact the soviet monument nicknamed ‘Andropov’s Ears’ and others have been destroyed and replaced/covered with sleek glass buildings, reflecting the new neo-liberal ideology in Georgia. There is equally the overbearing presence of the Iveria Hotel which has gone from a Soviet tourist hotspot, to a vertical refugee camp for IDPs from Abkhazia and South Ossetia, to its current iteration as a luxury hotel renamed ‘Radisson Blu Iveria’.
Having mapped out the square and its surrounding urban fabric, we found that the current square is dominated by its use as a roadway and parking lot, leaving not much to suggest a ‘public square’ and pedestrian spaces. Instead we noticed a much more human scaled space by the metro down the road which we wanted to compare with the private public space of the Radisson Blue Hotel such as its Casino and Swimming Pool. We heard from Evelina as well who confirmed that the square was little used and that the Hotel’s pool was in fact better used, while the underground area which was once used for seedy businesses is now effectively a no-go zone in disrepair, which pushed people into crossing the road without official crossings resulting in many fatal accidents.
Our sketches developed ways of unfolding the experience of the (pedestrian) journey between the two public spaces though section, parallel projection and perspective. We aim to express the disjointed routes and out-of-scale spaces while highlighting some rare pockets of more ameniable public realm. The combined section drawing follows one such route, showing the concentrations of detail, open roads and the underground network beneath the square. It also reveals the old monuments as ‘hidden’ under the new constructions. The unravelled Isometric shows the labyrinthine routes to bridge the two spaces along with any limited public space along the way. Finally, the persepctives show the series of contrasting open spaces along the route. This shows better the three-dimensional space that relates to the public walkways and the streetscape that welcomes or not.

Isometric isolating the public pedestrian areas and the large roadways/parking
A test of the unravelled routes between the two squares
A sketch of the proposed section along the route
Sketches of the combined perspectives of the streetscapes
Sketch of the elements around the metro square and monument





Our group explored the theme of ‘modularity’ where we looked at 3 projects – Villa Rotunda, Nakagin Capsule Tower and Climat de France. We analysed and abstracted elements that make up this ‘modular’ composition and began to understand symmetry, spatial configuration and the idea of directionality.

Villa Rotonda by Andrea Palladio

Climat de France by Fernand Pouillon

Nakagin Capsule Tower by Kisho Kurokawa

We came up with 3 key points to develop our drawings : –

  • Repetition and pattern
  • Scale variations
  • Elements

Repetition and pattern


Scale variations


The ideas for these development thumbnails are derived from the articles that I’ve read, The Power of Infrastructure Space by Keller Easterling and Generic City by Rem Koolhaas, with an additional reading on The Typical Plan as Index of Generic by Francesco Marullo, to gain more understanding on the relation between labours and space.

From the article, certain statements are picked to be derived into drawings, such as “social factory”, “hegemonic system”, “standardised mass-production of commodities”, “algorithm for creating space – configurable parameters”, “capitalist attempt to crystallise & exploit the social forms of production – acting as an index of generic human labour power” and “detouring the vagueness of the typical plan to recover its delimited emptiness & singularity”. These quotes and statements deliver the ideas of an ideal factory plan with satisfied labours, the behaviour of human labours within certain spaces and the systems that were introduced.

Apart from the articles, some example drawings were taken as references;

Hiroshi Hara, 1981


Casabella, 1963


Oswald Mathias Ungers


Quaderns Barcelone, 1990


These examples show the techniques of line drawings and chosen architecture elements that are used together with specific and respective messages.

Nur Aisyah Khairuddin, 2017
Plan drawing of Kutaisi ‘King David the Builder’ International Airport, Georgia

The above photos are my first thumbnail that is derived from the statement “social factory” and a drawing plan (as shown above) from the project Kutaisi ‘King David the Builder’ International Airport, Georgia. From the article, the statement is related to labour and reform plan of a factory/warehouse. The common architecture elements that I have chosen from a factory and warehouse are i-column, pillars and curtain walls. The floor is hatched with grid hatching to indicate the movement of labours within a space, spacious and cramped respectively. The dotted pattern is the movement of labours in and out of a space and as overall, to show how do the surrounding architecture elements affect the movement of labours within a space.


Nur Aisyah Khairuddin, 2017


Vehicle circulation and service access of Fishermen warehouses in the port of Cangas


The second thumbnail is taken and derived from the statement “standardised mass-production of commodities”. The pattern is taken from the elevation modular of the project Fishermen warehouses in the port of Cangas as shown above. The thumbnail shows an infinite repetition to indicate the mass production of commodities and is arranged with a standardised algorithm.


Combined drawing by Nur and Archie, 2017

A combined drawing is then produced with a combination of my first thumbnail and with Archie’s idea on infinite architecture structure element. This combined drawing is a trial on revealing the relation between movement of labours with a factory’s structure, i-beam and i-column. From the combined drawing, do the chosen architecture structure elements change and vary the movement of labours within a space?


To be continued..




Following our exploration of the relationship between utopian conceptual cities and and disurban realities we developed a framework to explore circles of societal perception. Starting with the centre one sees out to ‘the spectacle’ of society, glimpsing the ‘industrial production’ beyond. The industrial production is then facilitated by a ‘manufactured landscape’ with the surrounding ‘political landscape’ driving all before it. These are seen as inescapable ‘rings of society’, exploring the relationship between what is projected and perceived and the reality behind it.

Collage of ‘the spectacle’ and ‘industry’ beyond

Drawing showing an extract of ‘the spectacle’ and ‘industrial’ circles



Vladimir Tatlin proposed a Monument that would serve as the new HQ of the Third International after the Bolshevik Revolution in 1917. The monument itself was never translated into a physical form and stood as a symbol to the changes in the political system at the time.

Through sketches and drawings I have begun to investigate the spatial relationships between the internal voids which would serve the monuments programme. In order to do this an exercise of unwrapping was initiated.

Sketchbook – Robert Cresswell


Sketchbook – Robert Cresswell


The unravelling of the structure to understand and reinterpret the spatial relationship of a defined number of voids. Once an understanding of their relationship in true space is defined, a reinterpretation of the spaces is expressed through the use of single point perspectives in a series of drawings to evoke a sense of narrative time.

Sketchbook – Robert Cresswell




Drawing Diagram, Savini Rajapakse



Unravelling a building into a non – linear section, the drawing is based on Dogma’s speculative renovation scheme in Brussels, entitled Pretty Vacant. It depicts a vacant office block that is converted into a collective live/work space for multiple residents. The drawing explores a new typology of housing that is based on that of the office plan, with a series of unspecific partitioned spaces.

CAD Sketch 1, Savini Rajapakse


CAD Sketch 2, Savini Rajapakse


CAD Sketch 3, Savini Rajapakse