Verb words from project articulation: Parallel and Link


PARALLEL: Working and living spaces function simultaneously.




LINK: Connecting and linking two programmes; train station and deep-sea port.





3D experiment on the Verb Model

Synthesis of PARALLEL & LINK





Finalised Verb Model






Transparency of Movement’s Barriers – Concept for Reinterpretation Drawing in Semester 1

Transparency; Reveal the Unseen Views // Glazing Element – Concept for Elemental Study in Semester 1

Transparency of Recycling Socialism – Concept for programme in Semester 2

The project of living/working and rest area space is an interaction & midpoint of land and water transportation, creates “Transparency” in political, economical and social aspects in the logistic of the port & railway infrastructure.

As the project is also labours orientated, this will create satisfied and happy workers. Open space is also plays a role in the Transparency concept to ensure the working space is comfortable and to avoid unseen views.

The usage of Transparency concept of this project; A visible presence in urban space & society, recreate domestic space; allow people to live together with shared facilities but yet a place of solitude.


Precedent Studies





Analysed and combined precedent studies





Collages on Programme




Analysis on Data Collection




Proposed Programme and Flow Diagram


Based on this week, I use a grid as a medium of exploration to create a several of type of monument. Several architect and project was used as references to learn how they use/explore grid to create a certain of space. Example of this project is:

Parc De La Villete by Bernd Tschumi

In this project, grid was used to create a follies which is point of interest and activities for users. Grid was important part and static movement for this project because want to create same/consistent experiences towards users.

Cannaregio Project by Peter Eisenman

Different on this project, Peter Eisenmen create a series of void at Venice to represent of remembering the past of element monument.This is because to create a disturbance of grid in term of verticality ( solid ground and excavated void ) to create series of monument.

Memorial to the Murdered Jews of Europe by Peter Eisenman

On this project, Peter Eisenman create random grid between column to another column because he believes that random grid can create different memory and feelings rather than static grid. Peter Eisenman loves to create disturbance element of grid to create new disjunction / experiences towards users.



My interest in the Burning Man festival, the breaking away or setting apart of a people group from the society norm socio-politically and physically, led me to the political theology ‘state of exception’.

“State of exception” is the tile of Agamben’s book in which he explores the theory behind the understated and informal legalities of the state of emergency as enforced by political powers, as presented by his senior contemporary Carl Schmitt. Agamben describes the state of exception existing and directly subject to the rule, and poses that the rule ” lives only by the exception” (Agamben and Attell, 2005, p.58). While the rule of law is often created and enforced from a government administrative position, I will also be exploring a scenario in which the state of exception is created from a bottom up resistance or protest, against the state or powers that be.

To explore the state of exception through the architectural act, I researched two projects; Exodus by Rem Koolhaas and Villa Spatiale by Yona Friedman.

Inspired by the Berlin Wall, the Exodus project positions a separatist region enclosed within a boundary of two linear walls that divides London,  and thus creates a space of desire within the walls of whose citizens become ‘voluntary prisoners of architecture’ as the space within the walls is inhabited. The activities within the wall are organised yet unusual.

Koolhaas was interested in the strong psychological and symbolic effects of the Berlin Wall, despite the simple  and somewhat careless approach to material, and he argues these non-tangible effects were more powerful than the material physicality that the wall itself embodies (Koolhaas and Mau, 1998).

In the sketch above I was experimenting with the socio-political effects the architectural act as a boundary can have, and came up with associations that the architectural act can result as follows:

  • Solid continuous wall associates with rebellion and uprising
  • Intermittent arrangement of walls associates with resistance, protest or activism
  • Columns associates with transition
  • Glass wall associates with hierarchy


A compilation of photographs taken of the Berlin Wall. (, 2017)

Sketching elements of the wall.



Ville Spatiale, the second of my research projects into the state of exception, Friedman imagines a “new leaderless world” (Lynch, 2017) where individuals improvise architecture within a skeleton, resulting in an accidental arbitrary facade. The skeleton framework is the infrastructure to support the ad hoc and flexible approach that the architecture needs, to be free for conception by the individual that inhabits it.

Experimentation: Applying Exodus state of exception through the architectural act on the horizontal plane, through floors, in a vertical urban metropolis.



  1. Agamben, G. and Attell, K. (2005). State of exception. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
  2. Koolhaas, R. and Mau, B. (1998). S, M, L, XL. New York: Monacelli Press.
  3. (2017). The Rise and Fall of the Berlin Wall – Photo Essays. [online] Available at:,29307,1631993,00.html [Accessed 9 Oct. 2017].
  4. Lynch, P. (2017). Yona Friedman on Empowering People with Adaptable Architecture. [online] ArchDaily. Available at: [Accessed 9 Oct. 2017].




We explored the relationship between utopian conceptual cities and how these ideas manifested themselves into disurban realities (usually conflicting with original ideologies). We examined the large-scale linear plans for Leondovs Magnitogorsk, using perspective sections to explore the space between domestic, communal buildings. We used these drawings to highlight the contrast between the built ideological city and the natural landscape, discovering the power of the plinth as a hard boundary.

Examining the Broadacre City scheme (Frank Loyd Wright), we researched the evolution of the suburb, from ideology to reality, and the ultimate problems created, culminating in a dystopia of a fractured landscape where services are compartmentalised and spread over great distances. We examined how these services were contained in the form of shopping centres using the Myzeil shopping centre in Frankfurt as a precedent.

We began to consider plinths and containment from above as ways in which to represent social and political layers, exploring through sketches and collages how these layers related to one another.

Manufacturd Landscapes, Edward Burtynsky

Powers of 10, Charles and Ray Eames

Cénotaphe à Newton, Boullée  (1784)

Lauren Marsolier

“photographically without showing a speci c place, focusing instead on a mental experience. Hers is a kind of perceptual photography, exploring what is sensed rather than the immediately visible. In a composite photograph, liberated from the single point of view of indexical representation, a new visual vocabulary can emerge. A subtle combination of multiple perspectives, lighting sources, and distances is used to produce disorientation in the viewer. The landscapes are ambivalent, familiar and yet not identi able. The work probes our relationship to a globalizing world, marked by the loss of its certainties and an overall sense of placelessness.”

Six metres collage-drawing, depicting a typical day of M. in her distorted dreams, Lei Mao

“The architecture of logistics, the “ful lment centre,” is then a direct modulation of these standardized procedures, making the warehouse a highly generic environment able to cope with instability and change.”

“The exhibition takes a typical day of M., a night-shift logistic worker of Atacama, a ctional leading multinational corporation of online commerce. Following the micro- physics of M.’s operations, we attempt to reconstruct the hidden and perverse logic behind the company’s reassuring public image, tracing the mechanism in which collective desire becomes abstract, and abstraction becomes concrete once again, in the form of labour.” lment-1

Six metres collage-drawing, depicting a typical day of M. crossing the territory of Pianura Padana, Eva Le Roi


Supersurface, Superstudio

“Since, in the long run, mass production must be considered an information system, research no longer concentrates on the object itself, but that in [sec] its role as a kind of sign. This implied that the goal of design is not the object, but the link connecting someone with the environment. In this framework, the architect unavoidable becomes the designer of the consumer’s behaviour through mass-produced object design and correct ceremonial use. Superstudio’s production of images aimed, by contrast, at a world without design objects, intended to increase the consumers’ ability to design their own behaviours in an anti-cerimonial relationship with the environment through their resilient and transparent supersurface.” Quesada, F. // Superstudio 1966-73: From the World without Objects to the Universal grid

“The only activity is shopping. But why not consider shopping as temporary, provisional? It awaits better times. It is our own fault – we didn’t think of anything better to do.The same spaces inundated with other programs – libraries, baths, universities – would be terri c; we would be awed by their grandeur” (Kookhaas, p.71).

“Air conditioning freed new depths of interior space to shopping, by wrapping the consumer in comfortable environments” (Sze Tsung Leong // … And Then There Was Shopping. In Har vard Design School Guide to Shopping p.132)

“Shopping has historically preferred to do away with the outside, seeing nature as an unpredictable interference with the unfolding of commerce. Instead, it has created its own interior realms – the bazaar, the arcade, and the shopping mall all exist in a lineage of greater control and greater autonomy from exterior conditions. With the invention of air conditioning, natural light and air could nally be superseded and rendered obsolete, as “ideal” and completely arti cial shopping conditions were enthusiastically adopted by the public” (Sze Tsung Leong // Air Conditioning. In Harvard Design School Guide to Shopping p.93)


Broadacre City, Frank Lloyd Wright

Collage depicting suburban ‘reality’ of Frank Lloyd Wright’s Broadacre City Proposal

Magnitogorsk, Ivan Leonidov

Collage depicting reality of Magnitogorsk today juxtaposed with Leonidov’s utopian proposal

Photograph of Magnitogorsk as seen today

Section depicting Magnitogorsk and it’s relation to landscape and industry

Myzeil, Fuksas






Keller Easterling discusses zones as they exist today as tools for political agency, while Constant Nieuwenhuys proposes a social infrastructure (or zone) built on a surge in “free time”. While Zones that Keller describes are more labour driven capitalist enclaves as compared to Constant’s hedonistic ones, I am interested in deconstructing the spaces Constant envisions, and exploring spatial dispositions, with an approach of social and political rebellion and hierarchical clusters, against that of a collective.


I briefly considered Burning Man, as a tool for political agency, and became interested in the ephemerality of the festival as a zone for political and social “otherness”, and different from say an industrial park or a technology park as a zone within the city that deliver manufacturing and technological services and advancement.


While examining the themes of monumentality, infrastructure, the spectacular and duration, I looked at the San Michelle cemetery extension by Chipperfield in Venice; as a project study in which the cemetery is an infrastructure zone, as a social space that is necessary for any urban context because of the presence of mortality and the desire to remember or be remembered.


The two projects are so different, and yet so interesting to compare. One has a forced permanence because of the memory it must carry of life and death, immortality vs mortality. The other is an escape for the living into a heterotopic momentary experience, followed by an erasure of the physical manifestations, only to retraced over again.



In Keller Easterling’s Power of infrastructure space, he said these ‘zones’ direct national
resources mostly towards themselves rather than evenly distribute to elsewhere, and this will
interrupt development (improved infrastructure, business platforms, etc.) happening
elsewhere. However, I would like to recognize this uneven distribution as a breakout and
linkage for the whole district/state. Those ‘zones’ themselves are spectacles to draw inputs
with their specializations. Once those resources-centered, labour driven ‘zones’ develop to a
certain level, it will constitute a network to connect its surrounding area and stimulate
development elsewhere, which can be seen as an invisible infrastructure system. For example,
the coastal economic open cities/zones in China becomes a network to strongly feed back
their hinterland.

Constant reckons that the value of social life should be maximized for everyone. The New
Babylon, a city artificially in any aspects, puts people’s social needs as most important in
developing a city. The city expands both vertically and horizontally. In Koolhass’s generic city,
a city expands mainly horizontally, he argues city growth should be given total freedom
without any political interruptions. The city should expand and provide for everyone.

Further on I would like to explore about how those special zones(spectacles) play as an
infrastructure system to affect/contribute to the district/city as a whole, not only
economically, but also politically and culturally. Also, I would wish to investigate the features
and differences between planned and unplanned, horizontality and verticality.


Coming from an urban design specialization, Keller Easterling’s Infrastructure text
interested me in the way that it presented the urban landscape, as sculpted by
economic and political forces. Initially, I had remarked that the presence of people /
life was missing from this interpretation, with the exception of the references to
labour, i.e. people as a commodity. This made me question the role of the individual
in the city- does the city serve the citizen? If so, surely there is a social aspect to the
success of a city?

The Generic City depicts a similar urban scenario, but also discussing some of the
social impacts of the city. Within our group we discussed the theme of identity
within the generic city – does the blankness allow freedom to express individual
identities? Is it superficial for the city to conform to a single identity/brand?

We also looked at the New Babylon proposal by Constant, which seeks a utopian
urban solution in compartmentalizing and segregating functions into living spaces,
work spaces, transit spaces and social spaces on a multitude of levels. The ambition
of this spatial arrangement, I found intriguing, and I feel it is somewhat adopted in
the schemes of Ville Radieuse and the Brasilia masterplan, touching on the issue of
exclusivity and inequality, and regimental levels of planning.


“If design is merely an inducement to consume, then we must reject design; if architecture is merely the codifying of the bourgeois models of ownership and society, then we must reject architecture; if architecture and town planning is merely the formalization of present unjust social divisions, then we must reject town planning and its cities – until all design activities are aimed towards meeting primary needs. Until then design must disappear. We can live without architecture.”

(Adolfo Natalini, Superstudio, AA London 1971)

Looking at Superstudio’s Continuous Monument and Constant’s New Babylon, I can identify that they both have used their utopias as instruments of societal change. What relates to these approaches architecturally were the mega-structures that could be ‘plugged-into’ or ‘clipped-onto’, providing a framework which could be modified, adapted and extended. New Babylon’s project is more focused on a continuous construction going horizontally whereas Superstudio’s Continuous Monument uses enormous ‘grid’ structures to New York, creating a fundamental symbol of urban fabric and social network. Constant believes in the idea of society of total automation where human will not need to work and replaced with a nomadic life full of creativity and play. Le Corbusier’s urban projections from the early 1920’s were readily recognisable where he also designed dwelling spaces raised from ground level and the construction of distinct raised or underground levels devoted to uninhibited traffic circulation.


Going forward, I would wish to explore on how people live in the city today and the future relations between man and city.


The Barbican – Concept Sketch – Chamberlin Powell & Bon

The two tasks over the last couple of weeks were really integral for my personal development with DS3 in the way that I used and reinterpreted the texts to form my own initial ideas, relevant precedents, group presentations/discussions and arguments as well as exploring a deeper understanding of my own personal interests in architecture.  From looking at Peter Eisenman’s memorial for the murdered Jews of the Holocaust to the quotes of “ruins in reverse”, I feel like I’m more interested drawing into: a monument that could be as simplistic or brutalist as a ruin, but also contain an element of industrialisation and freedom/flexibility of space so the subject can experience my design possibly contemplating, exploring or observing and understanding.  This proposal may have some political stature and finally, to move forward with the design I’m hoping to further explore in particular, the Russian/Soviet empire’s significance.