1. Villa Rotonda
  2. Climat de France
  3. Nakagin Capsule Tower

The three projects above were chosen as a group so we could explore symmetry, directionality and the centralised module in more depth. Having 3 projects with completely different functions, ideology and the relationship with the context, we can distinguish how the modules have been utilised and designed to comply with the initial program. Through this exploration we hope to develop a better understanding of the module which can be applied to our own designs.


“If one adds and aggregates enough floor plans together the result is a proposal that oscillates between a small work of urbanism and a large work of architecture with the aim of a new type of collective and common space.”

(Andrew Kovacs, Archive of Affinities)

Following on from the Archive of Affinities, a square grid was designed based upon parts and fragments from the plans of the Villa Rotonda, Climat de France and Nakagin Capsule Tower.

The composition of this drawing intends to highlight the modulation in equalising and extraction of analytical building from selected 3 precedents.


Through the similar construction of that of the Exquisite Corpse, a paradoxical confrontation between the elements of speech, we have sought the unlikely juxtaposition of unlikely objects and their alliance of disparate worlds in creating an architecture that is both hybrid and in manipulation (doppelgänger).

Using the Iveria Hotel as the skeletal substructure to our drawing, we have created multiple doppelgangers through the manipulation of the Iveria. Both elements are a reflection of the act of pastiche of multiple layers of elements found in our individual drawings.  In this way, this façade continues to create a doppelgänger of its former self but through different perception.

The drawings started as a doppelganger with two different facades, one being the copy of the Batumi Tower and the other, the elements of the old Iveria. However, this technique did not investigate the element of pastiche, even though these two facades do not fit together. Therefore, we combined the copied elements in a random order to create a doppelganger of its former self.


Jude’s Interpretation  Maria’s Interpretation


Final Drawing




This drawing is combination between exploration of grid based on 3 project that I trying to developed in term of what function of the grid itself. The grid can create a collective memory and feeling by using grid as a references. References of grid can be explore by : –


Parc De La Vilette have a consistent between follies to allow the users not having tired and separated between space to another spaces.


Jewish Murdered Berlin has a unconsistent space between wall to allow people experiences different of feelings and memory.


Parc De La Villette allows user feels lost and direction when experiences that area. This can be solved by differentiate the landscape and material.


At Canaregio Project, Disturbance grid was applied to create a hollow and void area to represent “remembering the past”

Based on three project, the grid itself be part of medium to explore the space in term of width of column, level of surface, height of column and many more to create as a collective memory.


WITH Debbie

This drawing is combination between the element of grid and the concept of the state of exception. A city strip of continuous monuments divides the framework city of the future. The drawing has a plan, section and axonometric of the city strip, which has a series of walled spaces. Each space in the strip holds a memory of the old city. The monuments are made of the arrangement of an element on an erased grid, consistently and randomly. The walls of the strip is an elevated surface accessed via stairs that bring the inhabitants to the present, in view of the future city. The city is an inhabitable framework and dynamic urban form. The frame city is continuously evolving, nothing within the framework is permanent, only a grid and the framework itself is. The inhabitants of the city file through and create the walls and floors within the frames waiting for the city of the future to emerge, without a plan.



Individual Drawing 

Group Themes

Azuan Syahrol: The Grid
Debbie Donde: States of Exception
Maria Mavrikou: The Doppleganger

With the assignment of groups, my interpretation of ‘The Monster’ morphed into compositing all three of our groups themes into one hybrid interpretation of an architectural monster. Using the transformation of the Iveria and its consequential continuation through others, my interpretation of ‘the monster’ is the projection of the Iveria’s transformed elements, however, they are extrapolated onto a landscape void of scale or location. This projection creates a field of elements as opposed to a singular building. They represent significant parts of the Iveria, Shavnabada Monastery and the Deserter Bazaar that all form an interplay within the story of the Iveria Hotel. The elements specific in detail will dictate the field around them that is, itself, composed of the debris behind the operations needed to construct and reconstruct the multiple others.

This landscape, that is made of all that has fallen, the Exquisite Corpse disassembled in the creation of an extrapolated monster.



My final composite drawing begins with the use of Azuan’s theory of ‘The Grid’ as the base to my field with the inclusion of an edge condition to denounce the infinite. I conceived the grid in two forms, one representing the past order and the other, the new order. My elements sit on extruded and excavated areas never alienating the orientation of the grid. The motivation behind this was to further the idea that even when creating the other, each element will always tie back to their past order. The narrative of each element when looked at individually make no claim to anything but when looked at together, tell a much deeper story.

Debbie’s research on ‘The State of Exception’ was another device used to further this grid theory. By disturbing the grid through the extrusion and excavation of my elements, I was able to disturb the grid on which my field is sat and therefore create my own states of exception. The support structures and infrastructures needed to create such states fill the in between.



Group Drawing 

Through a similar construction to that of the Exquisite Corpse, a paradoxical confrontation between the elements of speech, Maria and I sought the juxtaposition of unlikely objects and their alliance of disparate worlds. In doing so, we would create an architecture that is both hybrid and in manipulation as a doppelgänger.

Keeping the Iveria’s skeleton as our base, we decided to reflect our separate elements, those of the original Iveria and those of Georgian architecture, through the act of pastiche. In doing so, our drawing represents a landscape where these two façades are continuously negotiating. As two forces, one with agenda and one without, their negotiation is the production of a doppelgänger whilst creating one larger doppelgänger.




As a conceptual and experimental drawing trying understand the life through a cinematic study from Rose revolution Square and Iveria Hotel in Tbilisi. Not only the way of drawings but, we are trying to depict “post soviet life ” in between and the inhibition of public life for vehicle and human.


As large, the Individual Drawing shows the unfold and distorted perspective to compare the use of the existing square / road. Furthermore, deconstruct the drawing in different layers. Look into a small scale, Re-framed the drawing into different moments, create a visual storyline montage.The drawings also show the Delay memories / images through the hatches, and each framed view suggesting a sequence of seeing. Each scene able to see some hints of phantom, like the nature, the mountain, the sun, the infrastructure, the signage, the adv, the proportion of street and the light post.

A Night version give a strong atmosphere of how the illumination dominated the street, Lighting as a way of finding.

Combine drawing:

The drawings expressed the dark of under the Rose revolution square. We emphasises the contrast of Refurbish / Ruin. Bright / Dark, Clean / Corrupt, Secure / Dangerous,  Smoothness / Roughness.

Interesting to note, the space under the Rose Revolution Square is denoted by Clubs, a unwelcome entrance for  nightlife. / hiding life.

Further development:

Individual drawings add more detail on “monuments” that can link to each scene.

Time : using sun / moon or other thing to present the change of time

Light : emphasise light and surrounding.


During the first semester the drawing tasks provided a platform to explore the initial themes; Monument, Infrastructure, Spectacle and Duration. These would then evolve to encompass project specific themes through further reading.

Through these themes, the study of an existing monument was initialised. Tatlin’s Tower or ‘The project for the Monument to the Third International’, enveloped many of the initial themes of the unit. As the monument was not realised the investigation looked at different ways in which to scrutinise the monument and develop a critical understanding of it.

In order to parse the monument a series of drawings to show its initial spatial configurations was undertaken. This clearly set out the internal voids and showed their relationship to the other voids and the external structure. An initial understanding of the building proposed new themes; these being: Void, Projection and Gap.

The project by OMA – ‘Jussieu – Two Libraries’, featured a series of drawings that allows the observer to understand the internal spatial configurations. These drawings portrayed the ‘single trajectory’ or ‘warped interior boulevard’ in a continuous section that broke the laws of a typical architectural section by following this route through the building. This successfully allowed a continuous element to be observed in a single drawing, un-observable to the natural eye. By using this as a precedent for exploration a new line of investigation was established; through the use of unravelling a further series of drawings was initiated.

These drawings allowed a further understanding of the spatial relationships between void and structure and their relative projection in comparison to physical location to be established. Through this line of investigation parallels were uncovered between the unravelling of Tatlin’s Tower and the current geo-political and economic positioning of Anaklia, Georgia. The parallels in this instance being the definition of the voids projection by its limits (in this case the structure of the monument); and the definition of the projection of a future Anaklia imposed by its geographical location between the separatist state of Abkazia and the new free industrial zone and deep sea port development. As a drawing this set out the structure in which the elements were able to be drawn through perspective. To draw this configuration through perspective allows the observer the ability to understand the analytical process behind the drawing through a single image.

In order to continue a successful line of investigate and allow the teachings of the drawing task to resonate within the continuation of the project, the main themes will be interrogated through design; Void, Projection, Gap. Moving forward the relevance of the prevailing themes will need to be interrogated when looking at a social, political and economic aspects of a geographical location and how these themes are able to manifest themselves in a physical environment.


The Modularity theme is attempted by properties such as through the Elements, Repetition and scale Variation, Also, the integration of Modular framework is that you can replace or add any module without affecting the rest of the system.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Refers to the design of any system composed of separate components that can be connected together. The beauty of modular architecture is that you can replace or add any one component (module) without affecting the rest of the system.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Hence, by exploring the theme of ‘modularity’ where myself, aqilah and xiao lei looked at 3 projects – Villa Rotunda, Nakagin Capsule Tower gand Climat de France as the subject. We analysed and abstracted the elements that make up this ‘modular’ composition and began to understand symmetry, spatial configuration and the idea of directionalilty. We as group have analysed the ‘modularity’ of these three projects, and understood how the project works through series of diagrams.

The three projects were chosen so we could explore symmetry, directionality and the centralised module in more depth. Having 3 projects with completely different functions, ideology and the relationship with the context, we can distinguish how the modules have been utilised and designed to comply with the initial program. Through this exploration we hope to develop a better understanding of the module which can be applied to our own designs.

That being so, I’ve explored modularity in my individual drawing, by combining the abstraction of each project to show the integration and unity of their modules. On the first iteration (figure 1) is attempted a classification of typical elements in the relationship between the three projects, hence with the plane and the linear element, in a hypothesis of modular “composition” as a form of notation showing repetition of pattern. Then, On the second iteration is attempted by experimenting of abstract drawing. The cube, the base, the linear element (column, tower), the wall are the pieces of a series of formal connections, in an elementary formulation of the “construction”

Figure 1




On the 3rd iteration the drawing is attempted by experimenting on oblique linear drawing of the interpretation of iteration 1st & 2nd. The drawing is attempted by showing infinite built monster wall into it among the constituent elements to show directionallity.


However, on the 4th iteration is attempted by producing combined elements to explore how modularity can be achieved in different language – possibly how it can be developed from its composition into a monstrous tower to show the possibility of attempting verticality of combined elements. The 4th iteration shows work in progress in achieving this initial idea of verticality / monster tower. Which later can be shown the final drawing where the 5th iteration is attempted where the modularity is exhibited in developing repetition composition of the 4th iteration monstrous wall. The drawing is also to show symmetries and balances to expressed characteristics of each three project’s elements to portray the unseen view. The drawing is being projected into an Oblique linear view to show how the spatial composition works.


Rose Revolution Square

For the first semester drawing I portray the Rose Revolution Square in Tbilisi. In the themes of infrastructure and monument it is of interest as it was created in 1983 as a soviet public space, with huge monuments such as ‘Andropov’s Ears’, where military parades took place, and has now become mostly a large roadway with remnants of public space and the renovated Iveria hotel as the main features.
What is striking is the contrast with the underground spaces, a vast network on three levels which was envisaged for public functions but instead was left to small businesses, offices and strip clubs, which seems half abandoned and in contrast to the recently refurbished landscaping above, stopping abruptly at street level, almost rejecting the underground spaces.

The drawings expressed the fragmented public space left on Rose Revolution square and contrasted it with the nearby public spaces, especially the more well formed space outside the metro station. The individual drawing isolates the spaces accessible to pedestrians and expresses the convoluted connections and passages between them, using the technique of topology to express both their interconnectedness and separation via the numerous routes between the two places. Like in Nolli’s plans of Rome, the spaces are highlighted and the buildings or inaccessible elements are subtracted.

The spaces are kept at a consistent scale on the drawing and from experimenting with abstract representations of the linking elements, such as string-like paths and dotted routes, it was decided that isolating the series of spaces in storyboard style frames helps give the sense of islands with vague connections hinted at by the routes cut off by the frames. The thickness of the islands with some experimentation with shadow attempts to further give a sense of separated units.

The islands leftover express the minimal space leftover by the dominance of road networks and a neglect of public space. The breaking up of gathering space is most visible in the fragmented landscaping of Rose Revolution Square itself.

Comined Drawing:

The combined drawing I undertook with Lok was first envisioned as a section following a certain version of the route between the Radisson Blu’s pool and the metro square, which then came to focus on the Rose Revolution square section.  It was important from the start to emphasise the dominating roads which cut across the underground passages.
It was clear we needed to show more detail of what was happening beyond the section line and this turned into projecting the higher, ground plane and private elements above the section line and projecting the underground elements at a different angle downwards away from the section in an opposite fashion. This allowed us to add more detail to both above and below, without the section line covering up and restricting what we could show. Our unseen view much more about revelaing the two contrasting levels, while also highlighting the demolished Soviet monuments along with the spaces left over or elements that have replaced them.

Exploring the square through drawings let me understand the square as a manipulation of the state and neoliberalism above ground while leaving a more personalised individual articulation in the abandoned spaces below.

The network of spaces contrasted with the large roadways

Individual Drawing:

Combined Drawing:



Studio DS3 began the semester by exploring the themes of monument, infrastructure, spectacle and duration.

Through these themes, I researched other ways of commemoration of a monument, that developed into the analysis of two buildings, San Marco in Venice (the original) and Piazza Batumi (the copy/ doppelganger). The research was further expanded upon my individual drawing as the reinterpretation of the theme of the doppelganger.

In addition to my individual drawing, we had a group drawing task in which we utilised our ‘common’ themes to create the projective view of our themes, “the monster” and the “copy”. Further information will be presented below.

Key themes:

Monument, Commemoration, Copy, Doppelganger, Pastiche

Through the exploration of understanding the terms of doppelganger and the act of copying the façade works as a device and a tool to read the buildings as it constitutes more as a “result” than an “architectural form” (Koolhaas et al., 2014).  The main theme used to read the site is the act of the Doppelganger to further read this political territorial condition.

To further my research, I looked into specific examples of the doppelganger. These two examples are San Marco Piazza in Venice and Batumi Piazza in Batumi.

It is clear that the Piazza Batumi is a “doppelganger” of San Marco in Venice.

Batumi is a tourist town that in the last decade has been through a tourist boom.  The need therefore, of something spectacular was developed throughout the city with extreme types of architecture. Batumi’s contemporary efforts to create links with Italian architecture are evident through various examples, as previously mentioned (Baniotopoulou, 2015).

There is a specific combination of images, symbols, capital and organizational interaction that not only functions on a semiotic level, but also directly references the literature of the network society above by highlighting Batumi’s efforts to secure its global city status. The act of the doppelganger adds a mythological layer to Batumi as it is a way of reading a projection of a “fake” reality that exists in Venice.

Batumi is an example of how our world is increasingly populated by spatial products, or the built manifestations of commercial formulas; (Easterling, 2014). Furthermore, Easterling lists a number of “unorthodox auxiliaries,” or techniques in which we can redesign infrastructure space: “gossip, rumour, gift-giving, mimicry, comedy, remote control, meaninglessness, misdirection, hacking or entrepreneurialism”. These techniques affect the stories, the disposition of infrastructure space, therefore makes up the act of copying/ The doppelganger (Easterling, 2014).

Piazza San Marco

Piazza San Marco Axonometric


Piazza Batumi

Piazza Batumi Axonometric


Individual Drawing

Through the research of the doppelgänger, the act of pastiche and the themes of apperception and duration, my individual drawing was conceived. By exploding the prefabricated elements of the two buildings that have been analysed, one being the “copy” and the other the “original”; I was trying to unravel the question on when do you define something the original and when does it become a copy or if the prefabrication of elements are multiple copies of one original. Does that mean when you take away the generic form that seems to be the main element that makes the it the “copy”, do the prefabricated elements still contain the doppelgänger, as these elements are characterised as the act of pastiche.





Attempt 01// Understanding the themes

Attempt 02// Elements from both buildings exploding from generic form on both sides

Attempt 03// Separating each building’s elements on different sides while still separated from the generic form

Attempt 04// Mixing the elements// adding part of the generic form to show that the elements are devoid of scale


This year DS3 began with studying 4 themes: Infrastructure, Monument, Spectacle and Duration.  While researching the quote “It is not the shape of the game piece, but the way the game piece plays” K. Easterling, previous concepts like form follows function became relevant to my development and I immediately began thinking of each part and its function either structural or spatial that creates a larger collective form such as a building or even an urban metropolis.  To continue progressing this idea into a 2D representation, extracts by Francesco Marullo on the Typical Plan provided me with useful background theories into capitalism and exploitation in the factory workplace.  The projective view drawing at this point was representing how if the typical plan was somehow destroyed and the architectural elements are free to continue infinitely, then how would the movement inside that space be affected.

Section through a Typical factory – Albert Kahn


To continue developing the drawings and my agenda, Piranesi’s Carceri drawings of an infinite prison provided a reflection into a society free from the classical order and its limits.  This was used to form the first reinterpretation of a “Typical Plan” building typology previously studied – the Alumni Memorial Hall of the IIT campus by Mies van Der Rohe.  Each architectural element of this building had its own function – the I columns & I beams supported slabs & walls but the concrete footings took the load of the entire building.  So I felt the message my drawing would highlight are the conditions each element or in a figurative sense, the basic worker experiences in the production of building and/or industrialisation under a capitalist influence linked to exploitation over time that is generally associated with the Western ideals Georgia is trying to emulate.   The projective view meaning had also developed by this point using the act of transparency and reflection as a false blockade against the different layers of social status inside a building or organisation and the restrictions on movement and logistics.


Alumni Memorial Hall Reinterpretation -Sketched Ideas


Alumni Memorial Hall Reinterpretation – Sketch Thumbnail 1.


The final developments to clarify and intensify both drawings included firstly, establishing greater differences between the architectural elements to further highlight social status.  This was achieved by looking at various decorative or lighter architectural element examples such as the King’s Cross Gas Holders Development or the steel trusses of the former Kutaisi Car factory.  In addition to this, the use of reflections from the glass barriers figuratively acts as a mirror from the outside.  However once inside the space through the transparency of the corridor floors, the viewer can see the real conditions and logistics between elements in the other spaces.  This is significant because even if the external façade of a building in a capitalist country is made of transparent materials such as glass, then someone may assume the building has nothing to hide whereas once inside, the conditions only then become apparent.

Original Patterned Steel Beams – Gas Holders Development, Wilkinson Eyre


Disused Kutaisi Car Factory, Georgia


Alumni Memorial Hall/Endless Factory Reinterpretation – Final concept sketch Thumbnail


Alumni Memorial Hall/Endless Factory Reinterpretation Drawing Process – Part 1


Alumni Memorial Hall/Endless Factory Reinterpretation Drawing Process – Part 2


Alumni Memorial Hall/Endless Factory Reinterpretation Drawing process – Part 3


Alumni Memorial Hall/Endless Factory Reinterpretation Drawing process – Part 4


Infinite Industrialisation Reinterpretation Drawing –
Hand Drawn
December 2017


Transparency and Reflection as a Blockade to Infinite Industrialisation and Logistics – Projective View Drawing
December 2017